MA700 Immersion Oil

MA700: Oil  Immersion Oil, 7.4cc is designed for use with Oil Immersion Microscope Objectives. Placing an oil medium between the front surface of the objective and the cover glass allows the objective to achieve a high numerical aperture, maximizing light collection by the objective. To minimize refraction of light from the sample, the refractive index of each immersion oil is very close to those of cover glass.

 

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Description

Immersion Oil and the Microscope

Since the microscopist’s major field of interest is the application of microscopes and related equipment, the fields in which the instruments are used are, in a sense, secondary. However, many scientists, having selected a field, find the use of a microscope a necessity but secondary to their major field of interest. Therefore, the microscope is thrust upon them as an essential tool. Often, basic background necessary for proper use of the “tool” is lacking or inadequate, having been picked up on the job so they can “get by.”

Considering the number of microscopes being used in all types of laboratories and the number of scientists and technicians using these instruments, from reports and requests we gather that they have learned to use them in what might be referred to as “on the job” training to the “get by” level of proficiency.

This paper will attempt to broaden the understanding of the “business area” of the microscope, between the condenser and the objective, as it is affected by the use of oil immersion objectives, and also expand on properties of immersion oils and how they can be more fully utilized.

THE FUNCTION OF IMMERSION OIL

 

Immersion Oil contributes to two characteristics of the image viewed through the microscope: finer resolution and brightness. These characteristics are most critical under high magnification; so it is only the higher power, short focus, objectives that are usually designed for oil immersion.

Oil immersion objectives are generally available from 40 to 120x. These must not be confused with “high dry” objectives or water immersion objectives that are also made in this range. Just as an “oil” immersion objective must be used with oil to get a usable image, a “water” immersion objective must be used with water and a “dry” must be used dry. The use of oil on a high dry will destroy the image by negating corrections for spherical and chromatic aberration.

For any given lens there is a fixed focal length. With the objective in focus there is a cone of light extending from a point on the specimen to the full diameter of the objective lens. The angle formed by this cone is the angular aperture (A.A.), shown diagrammatically in Figure 1. It may vary from 10° for low power dry (long focus), to 140° for high power oil (short focus). the greatest theoretical angular aperture is, of course, 180° with zero focal length.

Below the specimen is a second, matching, cone of light, the base of the cone being the top surface of the condenser and the apex at a point on the specimen. Theoretical illumination, then, provides a straight line path for each ray from condenser to objective lens.

This straight-line path is disturbed by any material of different refractive index. Ideally, Fig. 2, progressing upward from the condenser there is air (index 1.00), slide (approximately 1.515), mounting media, cover glass (approximately 1.515), air (1.00), and finally the objective. Since most condensers and objective lenses are 1.515, a homogeneous path is obtained by filling the air gaps with an immersion oil (1.515) and using a mounting media (1.515). Mounting media other than 1.515 have advantages and disadvantages but are not a part of this discussion.

The resolution obtained is directly related to the angular aperture, the larger A.A. having a wider cone with more oblique rays. However, unless there is a homogeneous optical path, the most oblique Rays are lost by internal reflection within the slide or cover glass.

The oil immersion objective of medium angular aperture has more resolving power than a ” dry” with larger angular aperture and the term, proposed by Ernst Abbe, “numerical aperture,” (N .A.) must be considered. N.A. is equal to n x sin 1/2 A.A. where n is the lowest refractive index in the path. Therefore, the air gap between cover glass and objective gives a theoretical maximum N.A. of 1.00; water, 1.33; immersion oil, 1.515. Since other limitations permit only a practical N.A. of 1.40 with lens glass 1.515, the use of immersion oil permits full use of the resolving power of the objective. And, for a given angular aperture, immersion oil objectives increase the resolution by approximately 50% over dry objectives of equivalent focal length.

Just as immersion oil permits utilizing the full N.A. (resolving power) of the objective, it is also a necessity for obtaining the maximum N.A. of the condenser. With a condenser N.A. 1.40 and an air gap between the condenser and the bottom of the slide, the limiting value is N.A. 1. (air); The additional light being lost by internal reflection within the condenser.

Whereas an objective must be used “dry” or “oiled,” depending on design, a condenser will work oiled or dry, but will be limited to a working value. Full resolution of a condenser, N.A. 1.25, can be obtained by “oiling” with water (1.33), or immersion oil (1.515). A condenser of N.A. 1.40 must have a media of 1.40 or greater, such as immersion oil 1.515, to utilize its designed N.A.

The third consideration is the mounting media itself. An “air mounted” specimen can receive a light cone of 1.0 N.A. The excess of light is lost by total reflection at the top surface of the slide. So, there is a second limiting or working N.A. value to be considered in determining the usable N.A. of the condenser.

The resolving power of an optical system is computed by averaging the N.A. value of the objective and the working N.A. of the condenser. The objective, as mentioned, must be used as designed, dry, watered or oiled. The condenser working N.A. is only equal to the designed N.A. when it is oiled to the slide, and a mounting media is used having an index greater than the condenser N.A.

 

IDEAL PROPERTIES OF IMMERSION OIL

Over the years there has been an increasing effort to standardize the optical values of immersion oil because it becomes an integral part of the optical system of the microscope. Obtaining the highest quality image requires that the microscope designer rely on consistent values of the immersion oil being used with the microscope. The first major step towards standardization of immersion oil was the German DIN (Deutsches Institute fur Normung) specifications 58-884 to which most European and American immersion oils, including Cargille Immersion Oils, currently comply. The United Nations’ International Organization For Standardization (ISO) is currently in the final stages of writing a more international standard in basic accordance with the DIN specifications.

The refractive index of immersion oil is specified at one wavelength, generally the mercury e line (5461 A) because this wavelength is near the middle of the visible spectrum where the eye has the greatest sensitivity. The e line is specified by DIN /ISO; however, there are still some immersion oils calibrated at the sodium D line (5893 A) and the helium d line (5876 A). DIN/ISO specify that the refractive index of general purpose immersion oil at the e line at 23 C shall be 1.5180 +/- 0.0004 (DIN), +/- .0005 (ISO).

Immersion oil contributes to the homogenous path of light between the condenser and objective by having the same index as the glasses in the system. “White” light, however, is composed of many wavelengths. For the refractive index of all wavelengths in the visible spectrum to match the glass optics, the dispersion value of the oil must match those optics. Dispersion is generally indicated by nF- nC, or Abbe vD or Abbe ve computed from the expression:

 

DIN/ISO specify that immersion oil shall have a dispersion of ve = 44 +/- 5 at 23 C.

The major formulating problem is not so much matching index for the e line, since a number of materials can be formulated to accomplish this, but finding materials with suitable dispersion values, so that dispersion is closely matched across the visible spectrum. To the knowledge of the author, no immersion oil matches the optics of the microscope perfectly. One of the closest matches is thickened cedarwood oil which, for many years, was the most widely used, if not the only immersion oil available. The disadvantageous properties of cedarwood oil are: high absorption of blue and UV light, yellowing with age, a tendency to harden on lenses due to uneven volatility, acidity, and changing viscosity (diluting with solvent changes the index and dispersion).

The synthetic immersion oils eliminate many of the disadvantages cited above. Temperature is a factor often overlooked as it applies to immersion oil. Liquids and most solids change index in an inverse ratio to the change in temperature. The temperature for which the oil is adjusted should be stated on the bottle. Since a difference of 1°C in room temperature from the stated value causes a change in index of the oil of approximately 0.0004, summer weather or overheated rooms can affect the index match considerably. The temperature coefficients are usually stated in data sheets or available from the manufacturer. Most manufacturers of microscopes use oil standardized for 23°C (74°F) as specified by DIN/ISO. Some oils are made for use at 18°C, 20°C, and 37°C for special applications.

The selection of temperature of calibration is made to approximate the stage temperature condition under which the specific instruments are being used. The 23 C value for general purpose immersion oil is higher than the ideal room temperature of72°F (22.2°C) and allows for some increase in temperature for radiant heat from the microscope lamp and other sources. Often the simplest method of adjusting this temperature is increasing the room temperature slightly. The increase can usually be made more easily than cooling a room.

When working at wavelengths other than D line, i.e., Green line (5461 A), Blue line (4358 A), or in the near ultraviolet, the index can be brought to coincide with the glass by slightly changing the temperature in the area of the slide, oil and objective. The temperature change required can be approximated from dispersion values and the temperature coefficients.

It must be remembered that both the glass and the oil change index with temperature. However, the change in solids is generally so insignificant that it can be ignored.

Color is, of course, a consideration in formulating immersion oil because its presence denotes a loss of light through absorption. Just how critical color may be is an open question. That it is undesirable is accepted, but the presence of some color, if it cannot be a voided, ma y be more than offset by having other desirable specifications met.

The greatest problem created by color might be its creation of an absorption band at the wavelengths of the monochromatic illumination being used. Special oils have been formulated for work at lower wavelengths of approximately 3000-4000 A.

The acid value of immersion oil should be very low. The synthetics usually have acid values lower than cedarwood oil. High acidity can, in time, affect the condition of the metal parts of the objective, and possibly more important, can cause deterioration of lens cements. The lens cement is also a seal that prevents oil from penetrating to the back of the lens. A crack or perforation in the cement draws oil by capillary attraction and a thin film of oil slowly creeps over the back of the objective lens; a poor image may develop without being immediately noticed. When the microscopist realizes the image has deteriorated, he may not realize the cause unless he has faced this problem before.

The defect in the lens cement should be repaired promptly by the manufacturer or a qualified repair service or the instrument will be used with inferior images and, when the oil spreads to cause an unusable image, time will be lost by successive cleanings. The cleaning of the back lens is awkward because of its relatively inaccessible position and the location of diaphragms which hinder access.

We have found that the manufacturers have placed objectives in an immersion oil and let them soak for 6 to 12 months before approving an oil for use with their instruments. The purpose is to be sure that the acidic, solvency, or any other properties will not injure their equipment in any way.

As each oil objective is made, it must be tested to insure the lens cement seals against entry of oil to the back of the lens. Immersion oil is used by some microscope manufacturers in this test work.

The synthetic oils should contain no volatiles, and be formulated from stable materials unaffected by oxidation, photo degradation or other forms of decomposition that might slowly change their properties. This stability means that the microscopist knows the material he is using and can rely on it having the same properties as when purchased initially. The stability is such that generally the quality control of the manufacturer has far more effect on the product than any shift in properties caused by age or exposure.

As pointed out earlier, the difference between the specification temperature and stage temperature causes changes in the optical properties. The deviations due to stage temperature can exceed, by far, any difference between batches of oil from the same manufacturer.

Though generally known and understood, it should be pointed out that the resolution of an optical system increases as the wavelength of the illumination decreases. Therefore, microscopists tend to shift from white mean 5500 A to green (5461 A), to blue (4358 A) or to near ultraviolet (2750 A) illumination.

Standard optics can be used in the near ultraviolet, but a number of special optics are made, the finest of which are quartz which is a requirement for ultra violet. Work in the ultra violet and the use of quartz optics requires a good deal of experience to gain the best work the equipment is capable of producing.

The near ultraviolet and ultraviolet ranges fall into the category of fluorescent microscopy. Immersion oils for use in these wavelength ranges must have extremely low or no fluorescence. Any fluorescence only serves to “haze” the field and makes images indistinct. Sandalwood oil and several synthetic oils classified as “non-fluorescent,” fluorescence-free, or very low fluorescent, are available.

Quartz optics generally have been used with a glycerin and water mixture, or to reduce evaporation, a solution of glycerin and sugar. Available from some manufacturers are stable non hygroscopic immersion oils especially blended for use with quartz optics.

Viscosity of immersion oil is mostly a matter of individual preference of the microscopist. Low viscosity oils are more likely to creep if applied over-abundantly. The low viscosity (150 cSt) is preferred by some when the distance from the cover glass to the objective is very small. Low viscosity oils are less apt to retain small bubbles.

Higher viscosities, (approximately 1250 cSt) have been found to be the most in demand and are supplied by more microscope manufacturers than any other. The higher viscosity oils fill the larger gaps more satisfactorily and are also reusable in that a second slide can be positioned and swung into place and contact made with the oil drop remaining on the objective lens. The 1250 cSt viscosity gives more latitude with oiled condensers since it will fill a larger gap without “breaking” and making re oiling unnecessary.

“Very high viscosity” (21,000 cSt) oil is particularly useful for wide condenser gaps, long focus (low power) oil immersion objectives, horizontal or sharply inclined instruments and some micro projectors. If the manufactured viscosity is not the most suitable, blends can be made. If a blend is desirable, an immersion oil manufacturer may mix a small special lot when the material is ordered as a percentage of different types of the regular line.

 

PACKAGING

Manufacturers generally package in small glass applicator bottles and larger stock bottles from which the applicator bottles can be refilled. The weight of glass containers tends to make them more stable than equal volume plastic containers. The larger stock bottles reduce the cost of the oil.

Immersion oil/Balsam bottles having a squat, very stable shape, an applicator rod, and a convenient glass drop on cover are available from some scientific supply houses. These bottles can be filled from the stock bottles in which the oil is purchased.

Microscope manufacturers use several types of packaging for the small oil bottle shipped as an accessory. The glass bottle with screw well-cap and glass applicator rod predominates. Polyethylene squeeze bottles or tubes are also supplied.

Plastic squeeze packages avoid breakage and mess if knocked over or dropped; however, the tips remain oily and capture dust unless completely cleaned after each use. The squeeze type are generally a little more awkward to use on a slide positioned on the microscope stage and a slight over-squeeze can put too much oil on the slide .

 

APPLYING IMMERSION OIL

The applicator rods with a taper-point or ball-end make it easy to apply oil to the positioned slide. The rods also have the advantage of measuring the drop by ‘tipping-off’ inside the neck of the immersion oil bottle to get the drop size experience indicates is right. Tipping-off inside the neck prevents creeping of oil to the outside of the bottle eliminating dust capture and oily fingers.

Avoid entraining air in the oil when applying it to the microscope. The bubbles, acting as lenses, destroy the image or reduce its clarity. The problem is usually avoided if the drop is touched to the slide or condenser and permitted to flow from the applicator. Dabbing increases the likelihood of bubbles.

The condenser should be oiled in a low position and, after positioning the slide, raised slowly to make contact. Oiling the objective is done by putting the drop on the slide and slowly lowering the objective into it, or with a parfocaled turret, slowly rotating the oil objective into the drop of oil. Once the optics are oiled and slides are changed, there may be enough oil on the objective to avoid reoiling.

Drying types, such as cedarwood, sandalwood, or other natural oils, should be removed immediately after use. If these oils harden they are difficult to remove, and lenses can be damaged. The non-drying synthetics can be left on lenses indefinitely since damage through hardening cannot occur; however, being oily, they will capture and hold dust. A time-honored solvent is Xylol. A small amount on lens tissue for a final wipe leaves optics in good order.

immersion oil

This straight-line path is disturbed by any material of different refractive index. Ideally, Fig. 2, progressing upward from the condenser there is air (index 1.00), slide (approximately 1.515), mounting media, cover glass (approximately 1.515), air (1.00), and finally the objective. Since most condensers and objective lenses are 1.515, a homogeneous path is obtained by filling the air gaps with an immersion oil (1.515) and using a mounting media (1.515). Mounting media other than 1.515 have advantages and disadvantages but are not a part of this discussion.

The resolution obtained is directly related to the angular aperture, the larger A.A. having a wider cone with more oblique rays. However, unless there is a homogeneous optical path, the most oblique Rays are lost by internal reflection within the slide or cover glass.

The oil immersion objective of medium angular aperture has more resolving power than a ” dry” with larger angular aperture and the term, proposed by Ernst Abbe, “numerical aperture,” (N .A.) must be considered. N.A. is equal to n x sin 1/2 A.A. where n is the lowest refractive index in the path. Therefore, the air gap between cover glass and objective gives a theoretical maximum N.A. of 1.00; water, 1.33; immersion oil, 1.515. Since other limitations permit only a practical N.A. of 1.40 with lens glass 1.515, the use of immersion oil permits full use of the resolving power of the objective. And, for a given angular aperture, immersion oil objectives increase the resolution by approximately 50% over dry objectives of equivalent focal length.

Just as immersion oil permits utilizing the full N.A. (resolving power) of the objective, it is also a necessity for obtaining the maximum N.A. of the condenser. With a condenser N.A. 1.40 and an air gap between the condenser and the bottom of the slide, the limiting value is N.A. 1. (air); The additional light being lost by internal reflection within the condenser.

Whereas an objective must be used “dry” or “oiled,” depending on design, a condenser will work oiled or dry, but will be limited to a working value. Full resolution of a condenser, N.A. 1.25, can be obtained by “oiling” with water (1.33), or immersion oil (1.515). A condenser of N.A. 1.40 must have a media of 1.40 or greater, such as immersion oil 1.515, to utilize its designed N.A.

The third consideration is the mounting media itself. An “air mounted” specimen can receive a light cone of 1.0 N.A. The excess of light is lost by total reflection at the top surface of the slide. So, there is a second limiting or working N.A. value to be considered in determining the usable N.A. of the condenser.

The resolving power of an optical system is computed by averaging the N.A. value of the objective and the working N.A. of the condenser. The objective, as mentioned, must be used as designed, dry, watered or oiled. The condenser working N.A. is only equal to the designed N.A. when it is oiled to the slide, and a mounting media is used having an index greater than the condenser N.A.

 

IDEAL PROPERTIES OF IMMERSION OIL

Over the years there has been an increasing effort to standardize the optical values of immersion oil because it becomes an integral part of the optical system of the microscope. Obtaining the highest quality image requires that the microscope designer rely on consistent values of the immersion oil being used with the microscope. The first major step towards standardization of immersion oil was the German DIN (Deutsches Institute fur Normung) specifications 58-884 to which most European and American immersion oils, including Cargille Immersion Oils, currently comply. The United Nations’ International Organization For Standardization (ISO) is currently in the final stages of writing a more international standard in basic accordance with the DIN specifications.

The refractive index of immersion oil is specified at one wavelength, generally the mercury e line (5461 A) because this wavelength is near the middle of the visible spectrum where the eye has the greatest sensitivity. The e line is specified by DIN /ISO; however, there are still some immersion oils calibrated at the sodium D line (5893 A) and the helium d line (5876 A). DIN/ISO specify that the refractive index of general purpose immersion oil at the e line at 23 C shall be 1.5180 +/- 0.0004 (DIN), +/- .0005 (ISO).

Immersion oil contributes to the homogenous path of light between the condenser and objective by having the same index as the glasses in the system. “White” light, however, is composed of many wavelengths. For the refractive index of all wavelengths in the visible spectrum to match the glass optics, the dispersion value of the oil must match those optics. Dispersion is generally indicated by nF- nC, or Abbe vD or Abbe ve computed from the expression:

immersion oil

Since the microscopist’s major field of interest is the application of microscopes and related equipment, the fields in which the instruments are used are, in a sense, secondary. However, many scientists, having selected a field, find the use of a microscope a necessity but secondary to their major field of interest. Therefore, the microscope is thrust upon them as an essential tool. Often, basic background necessary for proper use of the “tool” is lacking or inadequate, having been picked up on the job so they can “get by.”

Considering the number of microscopes being used in all types of laboratories and the number of scientists and technicians using these instruments, from reports and requests we gather that they have learned to use them in what might be referred to as “on the job” training to the “get by” level of proficiency.

This paper will attempt to broaden the understanding of the “business area” of the microscope, between the condenser and the objective, as it is affected by the use of oil immersion objectives, and also expand on properties of immersion oils and how they can be more fully utilized.

THE FUNCTION OF IMMERSION OIL

 

Immersion Oil contributes to two characteristics of the image viewed through the microscope: finer resolution and brightness. These characteristics are most critical under high magnification; so it is only the higher power, short focus, objectives that are usually designed for oil immersion.

Oil immersion objectives are generally available from 40 to 120x. These must not be confused with “high dry” objectives or water immersion objectives that are also made in this range. Just as an “oil” immersion objective must be used with oil to get a usable image, a “water” immersion objective must be used with water and a “dry” must be used dry. The use of oil on a high dry will destroy the image by negating corrections for spherical and chromatic aberration.

For any given lens there is a fixed focal length. With the objective in focus there is a cone of light extending from a point on the specimen to the full diameter of the objective lens. The angle formed by this cone is the angular aperture (A.A.), shown diagrammatically in Figure 1. It may vary from 10° for low power dry (long focus), to 140° for high power oil (short focus). the greatest theoretical angular aperture is, of course, 180° with zero focal length.

Below the specimen is a second, matching, cone of light, the base of the cone being the top surface of the condenser and the apex at a point on the specimen. Theoretical illumination, then, provides a straight line path for each ray from condenser to objective lens.

This straight-line path is disturbed by any material of different refractive index. Ideally, Fig. 2, progressing upward from the condenser there is air (index 1.00), slide (approximately 1.515), mounting media, cover glass (approximately 1.515), air (1.00), and finally the objective. Since most condensers and objective lenses are 1.515, a homogeneous path is obtained by filling the air gaps with an immersion oil (1.515) and using a mounting media (1.515). Mounting media other than 1.515 have advantages and disadvantages but are not a part of this discussion.

The resolution obtained is directly related to the angular aperture, the larger A.A. having a wider cone with more oblique rays. However, unless there is a homogeneous optical path, the most oblique Rays are lost by internal reflection within the slide or cover glass.

The oil immersion objective of medium angular aperture has more resolving power than a ” dry” with larger angular aperture and the term, proposed by Ernst Abbe, “numerical aperture,” (N .A.) must be considered. N.A. is equal to n x sin 1/2 A.A. where n is the lowest refractive index in the path. Therefore, the air gap between cover glass and objective gives a theoretical maximum N.A. of 1.00; water, 1.33; immersion oil, 1.515. Since other limitations permit only a practical N.A. of 1.40 with lens glass 1.515, the use of immersion oil permits full use of the resolving power of the objective. And, for a given angular aperture, immersion oil objectives increase the resolution by approximately 50% over dry objectives of equivalent focal length.

Just as immersion oil permits utilizing the full N.A. (resolving power) of the objective, it is also a necessity for obtaining the maximum N.A. of the condenser. With a condenser N.A. 1.40 and an air gap between the condenser and the bottom of the slide, the limiting value is N.A. 1. (air); The additional light being lost by internal reflection within the condenser.

Whereas an objective must be used “dry” or “oiled,” depending on design, a condenser will work oiled or dry, but will be limited to a working value. Full resolution of a condenser, N.A. 1.25, can be obtained by “oiling” with water (1.33), or immersion oil (1.515). A condenser of N.A. 1.40 must have a media of 1.40 or greater, such as immersion oil 1.515, to utilize its designed N.A.

The third consideration is the mounting media itself. An “air mounted” specimen can receive a light cone of 1.0 N.A. The excess of light is lost by total reflection at the top surface of the slide. So, there is a second limiting or working N.A. value to be considered in determining the usable N.A. of the condenser.

The resolving power of an optical system is computed by averaging the N.A. value of the objective and the working N.A. of the condenser. The objective, as mentioned, must be used as designed, dry, watered or oiled. The condenser working N.A. is only equal to the designed N.A. when it is oiled to the slide, and a mounting media is used having an index greater than the condenser N.A.

 

IDEAL PROPERTIES OF IMMERSION OIL

Over the years there has been an increasing effort to standardize the optical values of immersion oil because it becomes an integral part of the optical system of the microscope. Obtaining the highest quality image requires that the microscope designer rely on consistent values of the immersion oil being used with the microscope. The first major step towards standardization of immersion oil was the German DIN (Deutsches Institute fur Normung) specifications 58-884 to which most European and American immersion oils, including Cargille Immersion Oils, currently comply. The United Nations’ International Organization For Standardization (ISO) is currently in the final stages of writing a more international standard in basic accordance with the DIN specifications.

The refractive index of immersion oil is specified at one wavelength, generally the mercury e line (5461 A) because this wavelength is near the middle of the visible spectrum where the eye has the greatest sensitivity. The e line is specified by DIN /ISO; however, there are still some immersion oils calibrated at the sodium D line (5893 A) and the helium d line (5876 A). DIN/ISO specify that the refractive index of general purpose immersion oil at the e line at 23 C shall be 1.5180 +/- 0.0004 (DIN), +/- .0005 (ISO).

Immersion oil contributes to the homogenous path of light between the condenser and objective by having the same index as the glasses in the system. “White” light, however, is composed of many wavelengths. For the refractive index of all wavelengths in the visible spectrum to match the glass optics, the dispersion value of the oil must match those optics. Dispersion is generally indicated by nF- nC, or Abbe vD or Abbe ve computed from the expression:

 

DIN/ISO specify that immersion oil shall have a dispersion of ve = 44 +/- 5 at 23 C.

The major formulating problem is not so much matching index for the e line, since a number of materials can be formulated to accomplish this, but finding materials with suitable dispersion values, so that dispersion is closely matched across the visible spectrum. To the knowledge of the author, no immersion oil matches the optics of the microscope perfectly. One of the closest matches is thickened cedarwood oil which, for many years, was the most widely used, if not the only immersion oil available. The disadvantageous properties of cedarwood oil are: high absorption of blue and UV light, yellowing with age, a tendency to harden on lenses due to uneven volatility, acidity, and changing viscosity (diluting with solvent changes the index and dispersion).

The synthetic immersion oils eliminate many of the disadvantages cited above. Temperature is a factor often overlooked as it applies to immersion oil. Liquids and most solids change index in an inverse ratio to the change in temperature. The temperature for which the oil is adjusted should be stated on the bottle. Since a difference of 1°C in room temperature from the stated value causes a change in index of the oil of approximately 0.0004, summer weather or overheated rooms can affect the index match considerably. The temperature coefficients are usually stated in data sheets or available from the manufacturer. Most manufacturers of microscopes use oil standardized for 23°C (74°F) as specified by DIN/ISO. Some oils are made for use at 18°C, 20°C, and 37°C for special applications.

The selection of temperature of calibration is made to approximate the stage temperature condition under which the specific instruments are being used. The 23 C value for general purpose immersion oil is higher than the ideal room temperature of72°F (22.2°C) and allows for some increase in temperature for radiant heat from the microscope lamp and other sources. Often the simplest method of adjusting this temperature is increasing the room temperature slightly. The increase can usually be made more easily than cooling a room.

When working at wavelengths other than D line, i.e., Green line (5461 A), Blue line (4358 A), or in the near ultraviolet, the index can be brought to coincide with the glass by slightly changing the temperature in the area of the slide, oil and objective. The temperature change required can be approximated from dispersion values and the temperature coefficients.

It must be remembered that both the glass and the oil change index with temperature. However, the change in solids is generally so insignificant that it can be ignored.

Color is, of course, a consideration in formulating immersion oil because its presence denotes a loss of light through absorption. Just how critical color may be is an open question. That it is undesirable is accepted, but the presence of some color, if it cannot be a voided, ma y be more than offset by having other desirable specifications met.

The greatest problem created by color might be its creation of an absorption band at the wavelengths of the monochromatic illumination being used. Special oils have been formulated for work at lower wavelengths of approximately 3000-4000 A.

The acid value of immersion oil should be very low. The synthetics usually have acid values lower than cedarwood oil. High acidity can, in time, affect the condition of the metal parts of the objective, and possibly more important, can cause deterioration of lens cements. The lens cement is also a seal that prevents oil from penetrating to the back of the lens. A crack or perforation in the cement draws oil by capillary attraction and a thin film of oil slowly creeps over the back of the objective lens; a poor image may develop without being immediately noticed. When the microscopist realizes the image has deteriorated, he may not realize the cause unless he has faced this problem before.

The defect in the lens cement should be repaired promptly by the manufacturer or a qualified repair service or the instrument will be used with inferior images and, when the oil spreads to cause an unusable image, time will be lost by successive cleanings. The cleaning of the back lens is awkward because of its relatively inaccessible position and the location of diaphragms which hinder access.

We have found that the manufacturers have placed objectives in an immersion oil and let them soak for 6 to 12 months before approving an oil for use with their instruments. The purpose is to be sure that the acidic, solvency, or any other properties will not injure their equipment in any way.

As each oil objective is made, it must be tested to insure the lens cement seals against entry of oil to the back of the lens. Immersion oil is used by some microscope manufacturers in this test work.

The synthetic oils should contain no volatiles, and be formulated from stable materials unaffected by oxidation, photo degradation or other forms of decomposition that might slowly change their properties. This stability means that the microscopist knows the material he is using and can rely on it having the same properties as when purchased initially. The stability is such that generally the quality control of the manufacturer has far more effect on the product than any shift in properties caused by age or exposure.

As pointed out earlier, the difference between the specification temperature and stage temperature causes changes in the optical properties. The deviations due to stage temperature can exceed, by far, any difference between batches of oil from the same manufacturer.

Though generally known and understood, it should be pointed out that the resolution of an optical system increases as the wavelength of the illumination decreases. Therefore, microscopists tend to shift from white mean 5500 A to green (5461 A), to blue (4358 A) or to near ultraviolet (2750 A) illumination.

Standard optics can be used in the near ultraviolet, but a number of special optics are made, the finest of which are quartz which is a requirement for ultra violet. Work in the ultra violet and the use of quartz optics requires a good deal of experience to gain the best work the equipment is capable of producing.

The near ultraviolet and ultraviolet ranges fall into the category of fluorescent microscopy. Immersion oils for use in these wavelength ranges must have extremely low or no fluorescence. Any fluorescence only serves to “haze” the field and makes images indistinct. Sandalwood oil and several synthetic oils classified as “non-fluorescent,” fluorescence-free, or very low fluorescent, are available.

Quartz optics generally have been used with a glycerin and water mixture, or to reduce evaporation, a solution of glycerin and sugar. Available from some manufacturers are stable non hygroscopic immersion oils especially blended for use with quartz optics.

Viscosity of immersion oil is mostly a matter of individual preference of the microscopist. Low viscosity oils are more likely to creep if applied over-abundantly. The low viscosity (150 cSt) is preferred by some when the distance from the cover glass to the objective is very small. Low viscosity oils are less apt to retain small bubbles.

Higher viscosities, (approximately 1250 cSt) have been found to be the most in demand and are supplied by more microscope manufacturers than any other. The higher viscosity oils fill the larger gaps more satisfactorily and are also reusable in that a second slide can be positioned and swung into place and contact made with the oil drop remaining on the objective lens. The 1250 cSt viscosity gives more latitude with oiled condensers since it will fill a larger gap without “breaking” and making re oiling unnecessary.

“Very high viscosity” (21,000 cSt) oil is particularly useful for wide condenser gaps, long focus (low power) oil immersion objectives, horizontal or sharply inclined instruments and some micro projectors. If the manufactured viscosity is not the most suitable, blends can be made. If a blend is desirable, an immersion oil manufacturer may mix a small special lot when the material is ordered as a percentage of different types of the regular line.

 

PACKAGING

Manufacturers generally package in small glass applicator bottles and larger stock bottles from which the applicator bottles can be refilled. The weight of glass containers tends to make them more stable than equal volume plastic containers. The larger stock bottles reduce the cost of the oil.

Immersion oil/Balsam bottles having a squat, very stable shape, an applicator rod, and a convenient glass drop on cover are available from some scientific supply houses. These bottles can be filled from the stock bottles in which the oil is purchased.

Microscope manufacturers use several types of packaging for the small oil bottle shipped as an accessory. The glass bottle with screw well-cap and glass applicator rod predominates. Polyethylene squeeze bottles or tubes are also supplied.

Plastic squeeze packages avoid breakage and mess if knocked over or dropped; however, the tips remain oily and capture dust unless completely cleaned after each use. The squeeze type are generally a little more awkward to use on a slide positioned on the microscope stage and a slight over-squeeze can put too much oil on the slide .

 

APPLYING IMMERSION OIL

The applicator rods with a taper-point or ball-end make it easy to apply oil to the positioned slide. The rods also have the advantage of measuring the drop by ‘tipping-off’ inside the neck of the immersion oil bottle to get the drop size experience indicates is right. Tipping-off inside the neck prevents creeping of oil to the outside of the bottle eliminating dust capture and oily fingers.

Avoid entraining air in the oil when applying it to the microscope. The bubbles, acting as lenses, destroy the image or reduce its clarity. The problem is usually avoided if the drop is touched to the slide or condenser and permitted to flow from the applicator. Dabbing increases the likelihood of bubbles.

The condenser should be oiled in a low position and, after positioning the slide, raised slowly to make contact. Oiling the objective is done by putting the drop on the slide and slowly lowering the objective into it, or with a parfocaled turret, slowly rotating the oil objective into the drop of oil. Once the optics are oiled and slides are changed, there may be enough oil on the objective to avoid reoiling.

Drying types, such as cedarwood, sandalwood, or other natural oils, should be removed immediately after use. If these oils harden they are difficult to remove, and lenses can be damaged. The non-drying synthetics can be left on lenses indefinitely since damage through hardening cannot occur; however, being oily, they will capture and hold dust. A time-honored solvent is Xylol. A small amount on lens tissue for a final wipe leaves optics in good order.

 

Additional information

Weight 1.0000 kg
Components & Accessories

Eyepieces
Stands
Focus Blocks Holder
Auxiliary Lenses
Illuminators

Micrometer Lens
Stages
Polarizing Accessories
Protective Glass Covers
Microscopy Cameras

 

C" Mounts/CameraAdapters
Filters
Accessories

Details

EM Series Optical Data

Model
Zoom Range
Auxiliary Lens
Working Distance (mm)
SWF10X Eyepieces
SWF12.5X Eyepieces
SWF15X Eyepieces
SWF20X Eyepieces
SWF30X Eyepieces

Total Mag.
Field (mm)
Total Mag.
Field Diameter (mm)
Total Mag.
Field Diameter (mm)
Total Mag.
Field Diameter (mm)
Total Mag.
Field Diameter (mm)

EMZ-1
1X -3X
none
93
10X ~ 30X
23 ~ 7.7
12.5X ~ 37.5x
20 ~ 6.6
15X ~ 45X
15.4 ~ 5.1
20X ~ 60X
11.5 ~ 3.8
30X ~ 90X
7.7 ~ 2.5

0.3X
251
3X ~ 9X
76 ~ 25.6
3.75X ~ 11.25X
66 ~ 22
4.5X ~ 13.5X
51.3 ~ 17
6X ~ 18X
38 ~ 12.6
9X ~ 27X
25.5 ~ 8.3

0.44X
181
4.4X ~ 13.2X
52 ~ 17.5
5.5X ~ 16.5X
45 ~ 15
6.6X ~ 19.8X
35 ~ 11.5
8.8X ~ 26.4X
26 ~ 8.6
13.2X ~ 39.6X
17.5 ~ 5.6

0.5X
150
5X ~ 15X
46 ~ 15.3
6.25X ~ 18.75X
40 ~ 13.2
7.5X ~ 22.5X
30.6 ~ 10.2
10X ~ 30X
23 ~ 7.6
15X ~ 45X
15.4 ~ 5

0.75X
97
7.5X ~ 22.5X
30.6 ~ 10.2
9.37X ~ 28.1X
26.6 ~ 8.8
11.25X ~ 33.75X
20.5 ~ 6.8
15 ~ 45X
15 ~ 5.0
22.5X ~ 67.5X
10.2 ~ 3.3

1.5X
49
15X ~ 45X
15.3 ~ 5.1
18.75X ~ 56.25X
13.3 ~ 4.4
22.5X ~ 67.5X
10.2 ~ 3.4
30X ~ 90X
7.7 ~ 2.5
45X ~ 135X
5.1 ~ 1.6

2.0X
34
20X ~ 60X
11.5 ~ 3.8
25X ~ 75X
10 ~ 3.3
30X ~ 90X
7.7 ~ 2.6
40X ~ 120X
5.7 ~ 1.9
60X ~ 180X
3.8 ~ 1.2

EMZ-2 EMZ-2TR EMZ-5 EMZ-5TR EMZ-9
0.7X~ 4.5X
none
93
7X ~ 45X
32.8 ~ 5.1
8.75X ~ 56.25X
28.5 ~ 4.4
10.5X ~ 67.5X
22 ~ 3.4
14X ~ 90X
16.4 ~ 2.5
21X ~ 135X
11 ~ 1.7

0.3X
251
2.1X ~ 13.5X
109 ~ 17
2.62X ~ 16.87X
95 ~ 14.6
3.15X ~ 20.25X
73 ~ 11.4
4.2X ~ 27X
54.7 ~ 8.5
6.3X ~ 40.5X
36.6 ~ 5.7

0.44X
171
3.08X ~ 19.8X
74.5 ~ 11.5
3.85X ~ 24.75X
64.7 ~ 10
4.62X ~ 29.7X
50 ~ 7.7
6.16X ~ 39.6X
37.2 ~ 5.9
9.24X ~ 59.4X
25 ~ 3.8

0.5X
148
3.5X ~ 22.5X
65.7 ~ 10.2
4.37X ~ 28.12X
57 ~ 8.8
5.25X ~ 33.75X
44 ~ 6.8
7X ~ 45X
32.8 ~ 5.1
10.5X ~ 67.5X
22 ~ 3.4

0.75X
97
5.25X ~ 33.75X
43.8 ~ 6.8
6.56X ~ 42.18X
38 ~ 5.8
7.87X ~ 50.62X
29.3 ~ 4.5
10.5X ~ 67.5X
21.9 ~ 3.4
15.75X ~ 101.25X
14.6 ~ 2.2

1.5X
49
10.5X ~ 67.5X
21.9 ~ 3.4
13.12X ~ 84.37X
19 ~ 2.9
15.75X ~ 101.25X
14.6 ~ 2.2
21X ~ 135X
10.9 ~ 1.7
31.5X ~ 202.5X
7.3 ~ 1.1

2.0X
33
14X ~ 90X
16.4 ~ 2.5
17.5x ~ 112.5X
14.2 ~ 2.2
21X ~ 135X
11 ~ 1.7
28X ~ 180X
8.2 ~ 1.2
42X ~ 270X
5.5 ~ 0.8

EMZ-6
0.62X~ 4.2X
none
108
6.5X ~ 42X
35 ~ 5.4
8.12X ~ 52.5X
30.7 ~ 4.7
9.75X ~ 63X
23.7 ~ 3.6
13x ~ 84X
17.7 ~ 2.7
19.5X ~ 126X
11.8 ~ 1.8

0.5X
180
3.25X ~ 21X
70 ~ 10.8
4.0X ~ 26.2X
61.4 ~ 9.4
4.87X ~ 31.5X
47.4 ~ 7.2
6.5X ~ 42X
35.4 ~ 5.4
9.75X ~ 63X
23.6 ~ 3.6

Model
Zoom Range
Auxiliary Lens
Working Distance (mm)
SWF10X Eyepieces
SWF12.5X Eyepieces
SWF15X Eyepieces
SWF20X Eyepieces
SWF30X Eyepieces

Total Mag.
Field Diameter (mm)
Total Mag.
Field Diameter (mm)
Total Mag.
Field Diameter (mm)
Total Mag.
Field Diameter (mm)
Total Mag.
Field Diameter (mm)

EMZ-10 Z-7100
0.7X~  4.5X
none
110
7X ~ 45X
32.8 ~ 5.1
8.75X ~ 56.25X
28.5 ~ 4.4
10.5X ~ 67.5X
22 ~ 3.4
14X ~ 90X
16.4 ~ 2.6
21X ~ 135X
11 ~ 1.7

0.3X
326
2.1X ~ 13.5X
109 ~ 17
2.62X ~ 16.87X
95 ~ 14.6
3.15X ~ 20.25X
73 ~ 11.3
4.2X ~ 27X
54.6 ~ 8.6
6.3X ~ 40.5X
36.6 ~ 5.7

0.44X
247
3.08X ~ 19.8X
74.5 ~ 11.5
3.85X ~ 24.75X
64.7 ~ 10
4.62X ~ 29.7X
50 ~ 7.7
6.16X ~ 39.6X
37.2 ~ 5.9
9.24X ~ 59.4X
25 ~ 3.8

0.5X
194
3.5X ~ 22.5X
65.6 ~ 10.2
4.37X ~ 28.12X
57 ~ 8.8
5.25X ~ 33.75X
44 ~ 6.8
7X ~ 45X
32.8 ~ 5.1
10.5X ~ 67.5X
22 ~ 3.4

0.75X
127
5.25X ~ 33.75X
43.8 ~ 6.8
6.56X ~ 42.18X
38 ~ 5.8
7.87X ~ 50.62X
29.3 ~ 4.5
10.5X ~ 67.5X
21.8 ~ 3.4
15.75X ~ 101.25X
14.6 ~ 2.2

1.5X
64
10.5X ~ 67.5X
21.8 ~ 3.4
13.12X ~ 84.37X
19 ~ 2.9
15.75X ~ 101.25X
14.6 ~ 2.2
21X ~ 135X
10.9 ~ 1.7
31.5X ~ 202.5X
7.3 ~ 1.1

2.0X
44
14X ~ 90X
16.4 ~ 2.5
17.5X ~ 112.5X
14.2 ~ 2.2
21X ~ 135X
11 ~ 1.7
28X ~ 180X
8.2 ~ 1.2
42X ~ 270X
5.5 ~ 0.8

EMZ-12 EMZ-12TR
0.4X~ 2.5X
none
185
4X ~ 25X
57 ~ 9.2
5X ~ 31.2X
50 ~ 8
6X ~ 37.5X
38.5 ~ 6.1
8X ~ 50X
28.7 ~ 4.6
12X ~ 75X
19.2 ~ 3

0.7X
233
2.8X ~ 17.5X
82.1 ~ 13.1
3.5X ~ 21.8X
71.4 ~ 11.4
4.2X ~ 26.2X
55 ~ 8.8
5.6X ~ 35X
41 ~ 6.5
8.4X ~ 46.2X
27.5 ~ 4.4

EMZ-13 EMZ-13TR EMZ-13VX
1X~ 7.0X
none
90
10X ~ 70X
22.0 ~ 3.14
12.5X ~ 87.5X
17.6 ~ 2.51
15X ~ 105X
14.66 ~ 2.09
20X ~ 140X
11.0 ~ 1.57
30X ~ 210X
7.33 ~ 1.04

0.3X
230
3X ~ 21X
73.33 ~ 10.47
3.75X ~ 26.25X
58.6 ~ 8.38
4.5X ~ 31.5X
48.88 ~ 6.98
6.0X ~ 42.0X
36.6 ~ 5.23
9.0X ~ 63.0X
24.4 ~ 3.49

0.44X
167
4.4X ~ 30.8X
50.0 ~ 7.13
5.5X ~ 38.5X
40 ~ 4.5
6.6X ~ 46.2X
33.1 ~ 4.5
8.8X ~ 61.6
25.0 ~ 3.5
13.2X ~ 92.4X
16.5 ~ 2.3

0.5X
139
5X ~ 35X
44.0 ~ 6.28
6.25X ~ 43.75X
35.2 ~ 5.02
7.5X ~ 52.5X
29.3 ~ 4.19
10X ~ 70X
22.0 ~ 3.14
15X ~ 105X
14.6 ~ 2.09

0.75X
92
7.5X ~ 52.5X
29.3 ~ 4.19
9.37X ~ 65.62X
23.47 ~ 3.35
11.25X ~ 78.75X
19.55 ~ 2.79
15X ~ 105X
14.66 ~ 2.09
22.5X ~ 157.5X
9.77 ~ 1.39

1.5X
48
15X ~ 105X
14.6 ~ 2.09
18.75X ~ 131.25X
11.73 ~ 1.67
22.5X ~ 157.5X
9.77 ~ 1.39
30X ~ 210X
7.33 ~ 1.04
45X ~ 315X
4.88 ~ 0.69

2.0X
32
20X ~ 140X
11.0 ~ 1.57
25X ~ 175X
8.8 ~ 1.25
30X ~ 210X
7.33 ~ 1.04
40x ~ 280x
5.5 ~ 0.78
60X ~ 420X
3.66 ~ 0.52

Model
Zoom Range
Auxiliary Lens
Working Distance (mm)
SWF10X Eyepieces
SWF12.5X Eyepieces
SWF15X Eyepieces
SWF20X Eyepieces
SWF30X Eyepieces

Total Mag.
Field Diameter (mm)
Total Mag.
Field Diameter (mm)
Total Mag.
Field Diameter (mm)
Total Mag.
Field Diameter (mm)
Total Mag.
Field Diameter (mm)

EMZ-8TR EMZ-8TRD EMZ-8U EMZ-8UD EMZ-8
0.7X~ 4.5X
none
104
7X ~ 45X
32.8 ~ 5.1
8.75X ~ 56.25X
28.5 ~ 4.4
10.5X ~ 67.5X
22 ~ 3.4
14X ~ 90X
16.4 ~ 2.6
21X ~ 135X
11 ~ 1.7

0.28X
300
1.96X ~ 12.6X
112.3 ~ 17.4
2.45X ~ 15.75X
97.5 ~ 15.3
2.94X ~ 18.9X
78.1 ~ 12.2
3.92X ~ 25.2X
55.6 ~ 8.7
5.88X ~ 37.8X
34 ~ 5.5

0.35X
250
2.45X ~ 15.75X
93.7 ~ 14.5
3.06X ~ 19.68X
81.4 ~ 12.5
3.67X ~ 23.62X
62.8 ~ 9.7
4.9X ~ 31.5X
46.8 ~ 7.4
7.35X ~ 47.25X
31.4 ~ 4.8

0.5X
174
3.5X ~ 22.5X
65.6 ~ 10.2
4.37X ~ 28.12X
57 ~ 8.8
5.25X ~ 33.75X
44 ~ 6.8
7X ~ 45X
32.8 ~ 5.1
10.5X ~ 67.5X
22 ~ 3.4

1.5X
57
10.5X ~ 67.5X
21.8 ~ 3.4
13.12X ~ 84.37X
19 ~ 2.9
15.75X ~ 101.25X
14.6 ~ 2.2
21X ~ 135X
10.9 ~ 1.7
31.5X ~ 202.5X
7.3 ~ 1.1

Downloads

Double click to read at full screen Download MA700 Immersion Oil MSDS update (PDF)

Double click to read at full screen Download Specification (PDF)

Lighting Options

Replacement Bulbs Listed by Part Number
NOTE: The size of these images will vary and some images have been re-sized to fit this page. Do not rely on the size of these images to determine which bulb you need. NOTE: Incident light shines down from above; transmitted light shines up through the specimen from below.
 

MA111
MA260/05
MA261/SL-10
MA263/05 MA263/10
MA264/05
MA275/05

 

Part Number
Description
Application

MA111
12V 10W
Incident light:ST-3, SKT-1B, SKT-2B, SKT-3B, GS2000 Incident & transmitted light: SKT-BT, SKT-2BT, SKT-3BT Transmitted light: STC-3

MA260/05
6V 20W Halogen
For MA260, MA264H, and MA264EX illuminators

MA261/SL-10
115V 20W

For "B" Stand and MA261/35 (TM200 Series illuminator)

MA263/05

115V 30W

For MA263 illuminators

MA263/10
220/240V 30W
For MA263 illuminators

MA264/05
6.5V 2.75A
For MA264 illuminators

MA275/05
12V 50W
For ML5000 Series 50W models; ML7500, ML8500 All MT7500, MT8500 series

MA305/05 
MA309/05
MA326
MA350/10 MA350/20
MA361/10 MA362/10

 

Part Number
Description
Application

MA305/05
8W Ring Fluorescent
For MA305/100, MA305/200 ring fluorescent illuminators 

MA309/05
4W Tube Fluorescent
For MA309 fluorescent box illuminators for GEM stand 

MA326
6V 30W Halogen (G4 base type) 

For ML2000 and ML5000 Series 30W models; all VT Series Models, IM7100, IM7200, ML2000, ML7000, ML8000, ML9000, TC5100, TC5200, TC5300, TC5400, TC5500, TC5600 All MT Series 30W models; all RZT & RZDT Stands

MA350/10

115V 30W

For GEM stand transmitted light

MA350/20
220/240V 30W
For GEM stand transmitted light

MA361/10*
110V 20W
Half-silvered bulb for TM400 Series 20W models (DISCONTINUED)

MA361/20*
220/240V 20W
Half-silvered bulb for TM400 Series 20W models

MA362/10*
115V 30W
Half-silvered bulb for TM400 Series 30W models (DISCONTINUED)

MA362/20*
220/240V 30W
Half-silvered bulb for TM400 Series 30W models(DISCONTINUED)

MA560
MA561
MA570
FL180/70 FL150/70
MA357
MA358
MA590

 

Part Number
Description
Application

MA560
6V 1.2A Tungsten 
Incident light: AB, ABZ, PB Stands All BM/BMK Series models 

MA561
6V 1.2A Tungsten 

Transmitted light: AB, ABZ, PB Stands
Note: MA560 and MA561 may appear to be identical, but they are not interchangeable.

MA570
6V 10W Halogen 

Incident & transmitted light: ABE, ABH, ABZH, PBH Stands

FL150/70

21V 150W Halogen 

For Fiber Optic Light sources: All FT190 and FL150 Series

FL180/70
21V 150W Halogen 
For FL180, FL181 & FL182 fiber optic illuminators

MA357
8V 12W Tungsten 
Frosted – Fits Meiji Techno MT5500 Series Microscopes

MA358
8V 12W Tungsten 
Clear – Fits Meiji Techno MT5500 Series Microscopes

MA590
110V 15W Tungsten
Frosted – Fits Meiji Techno PBM Series Stands

DC Arc Lamps

Part Number
Description
Application

BA005
HBO 100W Mercury DC Arc Lamp
TC5000 Series & MT6000 Series Equipped with Epi-Fluorescence Lamphouses

BA013
XBO 75W Xenon DC Arc Lamp  

BA014
XBO 100W Xenon DC Arc Lamp   

BA005 Information:
Brand: Ushio Technology: Short-Arc Mercury Useful Life Hours: 200 Lumen Output: 2200 Actual Wattage: 100 Voltage: 20 Base Type: SFa7.5+SFa9 Length (Inch): 3.54 Diameter (Inch): .394Manufacturers Notes: The HBO 100W BA005 is a Mercury Arc 20V 100 W Lamp with a SFa7.5-2 base
This product is also a direct replacement for the following items:

100W OSRAM HBO MICROSCOPE
4050300507095
ALB UPC LER38445
ALB UPC: LER38445
ALB UPC:LER38445
AMERICAN OPTICAL 2087 BULB
DENTSPLY ULTRA CURE 100
EFOS ULTRA CURE 100
EFOS ULTRA CURE 100 BULB
HANOVIA HGH100W2 BULB
HBO 100W/2
HBO 100W/2 BULBS
HBO 100W/2 LIGHT BULB
HBO 100W/2 MERCURY LAMP
HBO 100W/2 OSRAM BULB
HBO 100W/2 OSRAM BULBS
HBO.100W.2
HBO100W/2
HBO100W/2 BULB
HBO100W/2 LAMP
HBO100W/L2
HBO100W2
JENA HBO 101/2 BULB
LD CAULK ULTRA CURE 100
LEICA 2087
LEICA 2087 BULB LAMP
LEICA 2087-001 BULB
LEICA 3040-0380 BULB
LEICA 500-138 BULB
LEICA 500138
LEICA DMRBE BULB
LEITZ 2087 BULB
LEITZ 2087-001 BULB
LEITZ 3040-0380 BULB
LEITZ 500-138
LEITZ 500-138 BULB LAMP
LEITZ DMRBE BULB LAMP
LER38445
LITE SOURCE LS-97 BULB
M5000-133
MICROSTAR IV MICROSCOPE
MICROVISION 804-137-001
MITEY LITE AMERICAN OPT
NARVA HBO 101/2 BULB
NIKON 1996G7 BULB
NIKON 235915 BULB
NIKON 5554-0102 BULB
NIKON 78589 BULB
NIKON DS-EPI-FL2 BULB
NIKON EPI FL BULB LAMP
NIKON LABOPHOT-2 MAIN
NIKON PHOTOLAB II BULB
OLYMPUS 8-B192 BULB
OLYMPUS 8229 BULB
OLYMPUS 8B192
OLYMPUS BH RFL BULB
OLYMPUS BH2-RFC BULB
OLYMPUS BH2-RFL BULB
OLYMPUS BX40F BULB
OLYMPUS IMTZ-RFL BULB
OM100W2L2
OM100WL2
OPTI QUIP 1500 BULB
OPTI QUIP BA-005 BULB
ORC AHD-100 BULB LAMP
OSRAM 1 X HBO 100 W/2
OSRAM 69217
OSRAM 69217-0
OSRAM 692170
OSRAM BULBS HBO 100W/2
OSRAM HB0100 W/2
OSRAM HBO 100 W/2
OSRAM HBO 100W/2
OSRAM HBO100W/2
OSRAM LAMP HBO 100 W/2
OSRAM LAMP HBO100W/2
OSRAM REPLACEMENT HBO100W2
OSRAM SYLVANIA 69217 BULB
OSRAM SYLVANIA HBO100W/2
PHILIPS CS100W/2 BULB
PLASMARC 100-5052 BULB
QL-0102/05
REICHERT M5000/133 BULB
SFA7,5-2 OSRAM
SYLVANIA 69217
SYLVANIA HBO 100 W/2
SYLVANIA HBO 100W/2
UPC 4050300507095
UPC LER38445
UPC: 4050300507095
UPC: LER38445
UPC:4050300507095
UPC:LER38445
VAN BRAUGHT HSA 100 BULB
WETZLAR 2087 BULB LAMP
WETZLAR 2087-001 BULB
WETZLAR 3040-0380 BULB
WETZLAR 500-138 BULB
WETZLAR DMRBE BULB
WILD 2087 BULB LAMP
WILD 2087-001 BULB
WILD 3040-0380 BULB
WILD 500-138 BULB
WILD DMRBE BULB
XENON L 117 BULB LAMP
XENON LM/100-2 BULB
ZEISS 1007-975 BULB
ZEISS 2800-18-4060D
ZEISS 38-00-18-4050
ZEISS 38-00-18-4060
ZEISS 38-00-18-4060D
ZEISS 38-02-13 BULB
ZEISS 38-16-13 BULB
ZEISS 38-16-16 BULB
ZEISS 3800-18-4050
ZEISS 3800-18-4060
ZEISS 3800184060
ZEISS 381613
ZEISS 9108491003
ZEISS AXIOSCOPE BULB LAMP

 
*Discontinued – subject to stock on hand Click HERE for more Bulb info.
Light bulbs in microscope illuminators need to be replaced periodically. The bulbs on this page are most commonly used in Meiji Techno illumination systems. If you own a Meiji microscope and need a replacement, you should be able to purchase it at your local Meiji Dealer. Some older models or specialized microscopes may use bulbs that are not listed here. If you cannot find the correct bulb, please contact our technical support staff to assist you. Click HERE for information on Lamp Safety, Handling and Disposal.
Tips on extending bulb life
Bulbs have a rough life in a microscope: burning in an enclosed area for hours on end with a finite lifetime, the effects of too much heat and not enough ventilation, DC current from the dimmer circuit slowly thinning the metal of the filament. And with bulbs nowadays being manufactured more and more cheaply, the cumulative effect is not good for bulb longevity.
If the bulb is halogen or DC Arc Lamp type, DO NOT TOUCH THE GLASS with your bare hands when installing bulbs. Use the plastic bag it comes in to install the bulb. DO NOT jar or bump or run your scope in an environment that has excessive vibration. Turn your scope off if you do not need it on. Some bulbs have a rated life of only 100 – 200 hours so if you use your scope full time, be prepared to use bulbs.
Halogen bulbs in microscopes and fiber optic light sources can also have problems if the socket is worn out; i.e. the connection cannot sink enough heat away from the bulb and/or the electrical connection is weak. If your scope is an old workhorse who's starting to eat bulbs, check the bulb socket out for poor contact and discoloration of the contact. The bi-pin type bulb should push stiffly into the socket. If not, or if it wobbles around excessively, the socket is too old and needs replacement.

Specifications

Product Information:    • Manufactured: 100% MADE IN JAPAN   • Warranty: LIMITED LIFETIME WARRANTY    • Customer Support: 1-(800) 832-0060 (U.S.A Based)Package Information:    • Weight:  Less than 1lbs   • Box Size: 8" x 8" x 4"